All electronics such as computer, television, cell phone have semiconductor devices in them. Semiconductor devices are generally capable of partially conducting electricity. For this reason, semiconductors are used in electronics.
Semiconductors are mainly used to make Integrated Circuits because semiconductor falls somewhere between an insulator and a conductor. Silicon is the best example of it. Semiconductor materials are commonly used in the microelectronics industry for various purposes. One of the advantages is its availability and low price.
An IC has many small components such as transistors, diodes, and resisters. If a large amount of current passes through these small components these can damage easily. For this reason, the silicon wafers are usually used as a base instead of a conductor. As compared to a conductor, silicon wafer provides a better consistency for current flow. An IC made up of many types of electronic chips, silicon wafers, and resistors. Such type of circuit board plays an important role for the functioning of electronics.
There are many processes when it comes to manufacturing of semiconductor devices. Some of the main processes are deposition, removal, patterning, and modification of properties for electrical purposes. Deposition is known as to transferring or coating other materials onto the substrates. Deposition can perform using technologies like chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD). The removal process can perform using dry or wet etching methods to remove material from the semiconductor substrate. The patterning process is used for shaping or reshaping of the substrate. Lithography is a common method is used for electrical property modification. This method is also known as ion implantation. ion implantation is used on the substrate to change its physical properties.
Wafer testing is performed to check wheather it meets the requirements or not. Using the grinding process it is possible to make a thin layer of substrates for a smart card or a PCMCIA. By applying this it reduces the thickness. Other processes are IC packaging and die preparation. Die preparation involves mounting chips onto a substrate and die cutting.
There are some other processes such as integrated circuit bonding and encapsulation are used for IC packaging. Thermosonic or wire bonding is used for IC bonding. Baking and plating are the example of IC encapsulation processes. IC testing is very necessary to check the overall functions of substrate and microchips. This is the final testing for the semiconductor device before packaging and shipment to a customer.
To summarize, semiconductor devices play a vital role in all electronics on the market. There are several steps needed for the manufacturing process. The most important processes are wafer processing, die preparation and IC packaging from them. And IC testing is performed to check the overall functions of all semiconductor chips and substrate for final inspection before packaging and shipment to a customer.